手机棋牌平台

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                                知道者悖论优秀论文

                                论文范文 时间:2019-02-24 我要投稿
                                【meicaoji.com - 论文范文】

                                  BEILUNWENTISHIKUNRAORENLEIXINZHIQIANNIANDENANTI。YOUDEZHEXUEJIASHENZHIRENWEIZHENGGEYIBUZHEXUESHIKEYIKANZUOSHIYUGEZHONGBEILUNZUODOUZHENGDELISHI。ZAIWEISHUZHONGDUODEBEILUNDANGZHONGZUIZHUMINGDANGSHUSHUOHUANGZHEBEILUN,ZHEIBUJINYINWEITAJUYOUSHIFENYOUJIUDELISHI,GENGSHIYINWEIGAIBEILUNYIZUIWEIJIANDANDEXINGSHIGAOSURENMEN,TONGCHANGDUI“ZHEN”ZHEIYIWOMENRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGPUBIANSHIYONGDEGAINIANDEZHIJUELIJIESHIBAOHANMAODUNDE。KAOLVYUJU( L) : L SHIJIADE。NEIME L ZHEIJUHUASHIZHENDEHAISHIJIADENI? RUGUO L WEIZHEN,NEIMETASHUODESHIZIJIWEIJIA,YINERTAWEIJIA; RUGUO L WEIJIA,NEIMESHUOTAZISHENWEIJIASHIJIADE,YINCITAYOUWEIZHEN。ZHEIXIANRANSHIMAODUNDE,DANWOMENYOUZHAOBUCHUWENTIJIUJINGCHUZAINALI。YUJU L BEICHENGWEI“SHUOHUANGZHEYUJU”,“SHUOHUANGZHEBEILUN”ZHEIYIMINGCHENGYOUCIERLAI。

                                  DUISHUOHUANGZHEBEILUNDETANTAOYIJINGCHIXULELIANGQIANDUONIAN,DANYIHANDESHIZHIJINRENGMEIYOUJIUGAIBEILUNDEJIEJUEYIJIANDACHENGYIZHI。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHIJINRU 20 SHIJIZHONGHOUQIYILAI,YILEIXINGXINDEBEILUNZOUJINLEYANJIUZHEMENDESHIXIAN,BINGZHUJIANDEDAOLELUOJIXUEJIAYUZHEXUEJIAMENDEZHONGSHI,ZHEIJIUSHIZHIDAOZHEBEILUN。ZAICHIXUDUONIANDEYANJIUGUOCHENGZHONG,GAIBEILUNDUOCENGMIANDELILUNYIYIYUXUESHUJIAZHIZHUBUDEYIZHANGXIAN。YUSHUOHUANGZHEBEILUNLEISI,ZHIDAOZHEBEILUNDANGZHONGYESHEJILEISIDEYUJU,JISUOWEIZHIDAOZHEYUJU( K) : RENZHIZHUTI i ZHIDAO K WEIJIA,GAIBEILUNYOUCIERDEMING。RANER,XUDUOXUEZHEDUI“ZHIDAOZHEBEILUN”( Knower Paradox) ZHEIYIGAINIANSUOZHICHENGDEDUIXIANGQUEBINGBUQINGCHU,SHENZHIYUQIJIANHUAXINGSHIHUOZHEQIQIANSHEN———JIAOXINGBEILUN———XIANGHUNXIAO。LINGWAI,ZAIDAOYILUOJIZHONGYEYOUSUOWEIZHIDAOZHEBEILUN。YINCI,CHENGQING“ZHIDAOZHEBEILUN”ZHEIYIGAINIANJIUXIANDEFEICHANGBIYAO。

                                  一、知道者悖论的前身

                                  ZHIDAOZHEBEILUNDEQIYUANKEYIZHUISUDAO 20 SHIJI 40 NIANDAIZAIOUZHOUMINJIANLIUCHUANDE“TURANYANXIWENTI”。ZAICHIXUDUONIANDEYANJIUZHONG,“TURANYANXIWENTI”ZHUJIANYANBIANWEIYIGEZHUMINGDEZHEXUEWENTI———“JIAOXINGBEILUN”。YEJIUSHISHUO,ZHIDAOZHEBEILUNLAIYUANYUQIQIANSHEN———JIAOXINGBEILUN,DANYUGAIQIANSHENQUEBINGBUWANQUANXIANGTONG。

                                手机棋牌平台  JIAOXINGBEILUNMIAOSHUDESHIRUXIACHANGJING: FAGUANXIANGYIMINGZUIFANXUANPAN,TABEIPANCHUJIAOXING,ERQIEGAIZUIFANJIANGZAICONGXUANPANZHIRIDEDIERTIANQIDE 10 TIANZHONGDEMOUYITIANBEIZHIXINGJIAOXING,DANZHEICIJIAOXINGSHIYICILINGZUIFANCHUHUYILIAODEJIAOXING,YISISHISHUO,ZAIZHIXINGJIAOXINGDEQIANYITIANWANSHANG,ZUIFANBUHUIZHIDAOJIAOXINGJIANGZAIDIERTIANZHIXING。ZHEIKANSIYIZEHENZHENGCHANGDEXUANPAN,RANERDANGZHEIMINGCONGMINGDEZUIFANTINGDAOGAIXUANPANSHI,XINZHONGYIZHENQIEXI: ANZHAOGAIXUANPAN,ZIJIBUHUIBEIZHIXINGJIAOXING。WEISHENMENI? GAIZUIFANDERUYISUANPANSHIZHEIYANGDE: GENJUFAGUANDEXUANPAN,JIAOXINGBUKENENGZAIZHEI 10 TIANZHONGDEZUIHOUYITIANZHIXING,ZHEISHIYINWEIRUGUOZAIZUIHOUYITIANZHIXING,NEIMEYOUYUQIAN 9 TIANDOUMEIYOUZHIXINGJIAOXING,SUOYIZAIDAOSHUDIERTIAN( YEJIUSHIDI 9TIAN) WANSHANG,WOJIUHUIZHIDAODIERTIAN( YEJIUSHIZUIHOUYITIAN) JIANGZHIXINGJIAOXING,DANZHEIBUMANZUFAGUANSUOXUANPANDEZHEICIJIAOXINGDE“YIWAIXING”,YINERJIAOXINGBUKENENGZAIZUIHOUYITIANZHIXING。JIAOXINGYEBUKENENGZAIDAOSHUDIERTIANZHIXING,YINWEIRUGUOZAIDAOSHUDIERTIANZHIXING,NEIMEYOUYUQIAN 8 TIANDOUMEIYOUZHIXINGJIAOXING,ERQIANMIANDETUILIYIJINGPAICHULEJIAOXINGZAIZUIHOUYITIANZHIXINGDEKENENGXING,SUOYIZAIDAOSHUDISANTIAN( YEJIUSHIDI 8 TIAN) WANSHANG,WOJIUHUIZHIDAODIERTIAN( YEJIUSHIDAOSHUDIERTIAN) JIANGZHIXINGJIAOXING,ZHEIZAIYICIBUMANZUFAGUANSUOXUANPANDEJIAOXINGDE“YIWAIXING”,YINERJIAOXINGBUKENENGZAIDAOSHUDIERTIANZHIXING。ANZHAOTONGYANGDESILUJINXINGTUILI,KEYIYICIPAICHUJIAOXINGZAIDAOSHUDISANTIAN、DAOSHUDISITIAN……ZHIXING。YUSHIGAIZUIFANDUANDINGFAGUANDEXUANPANSHIBUKESHIXIANDE。RANER,FAGUANJIUZAIJIEXIALAIDEDISITIANTURANLAIDAOGAIZUIFANMIANQIANDUITAZHIXINGLEJIAOXING,ZHEIDADACHUHUGAIZUIFANDEYILIAO,CONGERBUZHEBUKOUDISHIXIANLEZHIQIANDEXUANPAN。KEBEIDESHI,GAIZUIFANDAOSIDOUMEIYOUMINGBAIWEISHENMEZIJIWUXIEKEJIDETUILIDANGZHONGQUEBAOHANZHEMAODUN。

                                手机棋牌平台  QIANMIAN,WOMENYIFEIXINGSHIDEFANGSHIXUSHULEJIAOXINGBEILUN。JINGUANGAIBEILUNHAIYOUZHUDUOSHIZHIXIANGTONGDEQITABANBEN,BIRUKELIPUKE( S. A Kripke)[2]NINGYUANCHENGZHIWEI“YIWAIKAOSHIBEILUN”,DANWOMENHAISHIZUNXUNKUAIYIN( W. V. Quine) DECHENGWEIJIANGZHICHENGWEI“JIAOXINGBEILUN”。JINGGUOAOKANGNA( D. O’Con-nor)、SIKELIWEN( M. Scriven)、KUAIYIN、SHAWU( R.Shaw)[、MENGTAGU( R. Montague) HEKAPULAN( D. Kap-lan) DENGZHEXUEJIAYULUOJIXUEJIADESHENRUYANJIUYUZHENGLI,QIANSHUFEIXINGSHIXUSHUDEJIAOXINGBEILUNYIJINGFAZHANCHENGYIGEGUANYU“ZHISHI”GAINIANDEYANGEDEZIZHIBEILUN。

                                  二、知道者悖论的严格刻画

                                  YOUMENGTAGUHEKAPULANZAIQI 1960 NIANFABIAODEWENZHANGZHONGJICHUDE,TAMENRENWEIGAIBEILUNDECHUXIANBIJIANGHUIYINCHUZHEXUERENSHILUNSHANGDEMOUXIEXINTANTAO,YINCITAMENZAIJICHUZHEIZHONGKEHUAZHIHOU,DUIGAIWENTIJINXINGLEJINYIBUSHENRUDESIKAO。MENGTAGUHEKAPULANFAXIAN,KEYIKAOLVYIGECONGGAIBEILUNYINSHENCHULAIDEGENGJIANDANDEJIEGUO,ZHEIYANGJIUHUISHIWENTIBIANDEGENGJIAJIANRUI。RUQIANSUOSHUCONGQIANSHUFEIXINGSHIXUSHUBUNANKANCHU,JIAOXINGBEILUNZHONGJIAOXINGBUKENENGZHIXINGDETUIDAOYUTIANSHUWUGUAN。YINCI,ZAIZHEILIWEIJIANJIEMINGLEQIJIAN,ZHIKAOLVYOULIANGGEKEXUANZERIZIDEQINGXING,ZHEIBUHUIYINGXIANGWENTIDESHIZHI。

                                  三、简化的知道者悖论

                                  ZAIDUONIANDEYANJIUDANGZHONG,ZHIDAOZHEBEILUNYOUSHIHOUYEYITADEJIANHUAXINGSHICHUXIAN。CONGYISHANGZHIDAOZHEBEILUNDEYANGEXINGSHIKEHUADEGUOCHENGZHONGBUNANKANCHU,GEDEERZIZHIDINGLIQIDAOLEZHIGUANZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,YINWEIGAIDINGLISHIDEFAGUANDEXUANPANZHEIYIZIZHIYUJUJINGFUHAOBIAODAZHIHOUCHENGWEIXINGSHISUANSHUXITONGDEYITIAODINGLI。SHAOJIAFENXIKEZHI,YOUGEDEERZIZHIDINGLISUODE,YUQIANSHU( Z) LEISIDE A**DIEDANGzp( 「A**? ) TONGYANGSHIPIYANUOSUANSHUXITONGHUOZHELUBINXUNSUANSHUXITONGDEDINGLI。ZAIYISHANGJIESHIZHIXIA,YUJU A**DEYISISHI: RENZHIZHUTI p BUZHIDAO A**。XIANGBIZHIXIA,YUJU A**ZAIJIEGOUSHANGBIQIANMIANDEYUJU A*GENGJIEJINYU“SHUOHUANGZHEYUJU”L: LDIEZHU( 「L? ) 。RUGUOBAZHIDAOZHEYUJUGOUZAOWEI A**,ZESHAOJIAXIUGAIRENZHIGUIZEYIJITUIDAOJIANGOUSUOYILAIDEXINGSHIXITONG,JIUKEYIGOUZAOCHUZHIDAOZHEBEILUNDELINGYIGEJIANHUABANBEN( XIANGYINGDI,QIANMIANTIDAODEKEYICHENGZHIWEIZHIDAOZHEBEILUNDEJINGDIANBANBEN) 。

                                  四、道义逻辑中的知道者悖论

                                手机棋牌平台  ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,ZAIXIANGGUANWENXIANZHONGHAIYOUYILEISUOWEIDE“ZHIDAOZHEBEILUN”———“DAOYILUOJIZHONGDEZHIDAOZHEBEILUN”( the paradox knower in deontic logic) 。SUOWEI“DAOYILUOJI”( Denotic Logic) YECHENGGUIFANLUOJI,SHIYANJIU“YINGGAI”“YUNXU”“JINZHI”DENGGAINIANDEGUANGYIMOTAILUOJIDEFENZHIZHIYI。

                                  五、结论

                                手机棋牌平台  ZHIDAOZHEBEILUNSHIGUANYU“ZHIDAO”DEYANGEYIYIDELUOJIBEILUN。SUOWEIYANGEYIYIDELUOJIBEILUN“ZHIWEIZHEIYANGYIZHONGLILUNSHISHIHUOZHUANGKUANG,ZAIMOUXIEGONGRENZHENGQUEDEBEIJINGZHISHIZHIXIA,KEYIHEHULUOJIDIJIANLILIANGGEMAODUNYUJUXIANGHUTUICHUDEMAODUNDENGJIASHI”。YOUYUGAIBEILUNYIZUIWEIJIANDANDEXINGSHIGAOSURENMEN,TONGCHANGDUI“ZHIDAO”ZHEIYIGAINIANDELIJIESHIBAOHANMAODUNDE,SUOYIZHIDAOZHEBEILUNDEDAOLELAIZIRENHEGUANZHUZHISHIGAINIANDEXUEKEDEGUANGFANZHONGSHI。YOUQISHIJINRU 21 SHIJIYILAI,ZHIDAOZHEBEILUNYANJIUQUDELEXUNSUFAZHAN。YOUYISHANGFENXIBUNANKANCHU,YINERYUZHIDAOZHEBEILUNJIQIJIANHUAXINGSHIYUQIANSHENYOUZHESHIFENMIQIEDELIANXI。DANHENXIANRAN,LIANGZHEZHIJIANYECUNZAIZHEBENZHISHANGDEBUTONG: DAOYILUOJIZHONGDEZHIDAOZHEBEILUNHAIBENZHIDISHEJIDAOLEJIBENDAOYIGUIZE,YINERSHIYIGEBIZHIDAOZHEBEILUNGENGWEIFUZADEWENTI。ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,ZAIBUTONGDEQINGJINGDANGZHONG,YOUYUBEIJINGZHISHIDEBUTONG,“ZHIDAOZHEBEILUN”( Knower Paradox) ZHEIYIGAINIANYU 4 GEBEILUNXIANGGUAN。YINCI,DUIZHIDAOZHEBEILUNJINXINGYANJIU,SHOUXIANYINGGAIMINGQUEZHEI 4 GEBEILUNZHIJIANDELIANXIYUQUBIE。

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